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A Consideration of Pictish Names

h3>by Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn
copyright 1996 Heather Rose Jones, all rights reserved

V. Index of Name Elements

This index references elements by the section in which they are discussed. I have grouped elements under a "standard" form (the medieval one, except for those only found in classical sources). As is standard practice, entries marked with an asterisk are reconstructions which do not actually appear in the records. The key to the common sources is: Pt = Ptolemeic map, ColMS = Colbertine manuscript of the Pictish Chronicle, IrHB = Irish version of the "Historia Britonum", HB = Scottish additions to the "Historia Britonum". Other sources are mentioned in detail. Unless otherwise specified, an element is found as a given name. Those found in a patronym are noted as such, and it should be noted that these may be a gentive (possessive) form of the name.

Achivir             II.B.3. ColMS, patronym, post-Brude list
 Achiuir            II.B.3. IrHB, patronym, post-Brude list
Alauna              II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
*Alpin              Although modern sources usually give "Alpin"
                    as the standard form of this name, none of
                    the sources I used had that spelling.
 Elfin              II.C. Old Welsh form of the name, found in
                    northern genealogies
 Elpin              II.B.4. ColMS, IrHB, historic kings, 2
                    examples
Aniel               II.B.3. ColMS, patronym, post-Brude list
 Ainel              II.B.3. IrHB, patronym, post-Brude list
Argentocoxus        II.A.2. Caledonian personal name mentioned by
                    Dio Cassius (3rd c.)
Artbranan           II.E. Probable Pict mentioned by Adamnan (7th
                    c.)
Arcois              II.B.3. ColMS, patronym, post-Brude list,
                    early form might be *Artocoxos
 Artcois            II.B.3. IrHB, patronym, post-Brude list
Bannatia            II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Bargoit             II.B.4. ColMS/IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Bili
 Bili/File          II.B.4. ColMS/IrHB, patronym, historic kings,
                    "File" is Gaelicized
 Beli               II.C. Old Welsh version of the name
Bliesblituth        II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Blieb'lith         II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Boderiae            II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Breth               II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, post-Brude list,
                    possibly identical to "Brude"
Brude               In the "pre-historic" data, it is highly
                    questionable whether this is used as a given
                    name. It may be a titled, equivalent to
                    "king". But later examples appear to be given
                    names. This is one of the top 10 most popular
                    names of the historic period.
 Bred               II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, historic kings,
                    possibly identical to "Brude"
 Bredei             II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings, 3 examples
 Brei               II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Breidei            II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Brete              II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Bridei             II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Briduo             II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings, possibly
                    identical to "Brude"
 Bridiuo            II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings, possibly
                    identical to "Brude"
 Brude              II.B.2. probably title or scribal error in
                    list of Brudes; II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings;
                    II.E. Pict mentioned by Adamnan (7th c.)
 Bruide             II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings; II.E. Pict
                    mentioned by Adamnan (7th c.)
Buthut              II.B.3. ColMS, patronym, post-Brude list
 Buthud             II.B.3. IrHB, patronym, post-Brude list
Caelis              II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Caeltigern          This looks like a corruption of the Celtic
                    name appearing in Irish as "Caeltigern". But
                    the Irish example may simply be an
                    interpretation of an unfamiliar name as a
                    more familiar one.
 Cailtarni          II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Gailtram           II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
Caereni             II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably Celtic
Cal                 II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list
 Urcal              II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Cal"
Caledonii
 Caledonii          II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably Celtic
 Caledonius Saltus  II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
 Dicalydones        I.B. tribal name, division of Picts mentioned
                    by 4th c. Ammianus Marcellinus, probably
                    related to "Caledonii"
Calgacus            II.A.2. Caledonian personal name mentioned by
                    Tacitus (1st c.)
Canaul              II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, historic kings, also
                    appears as "Canaut" in manuscripts I didn't
                    use, possibly cognate with Old Welsh "Cinhil"
Canutulachama       II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Canutulahina       II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Carnonacae          II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Carvorst            II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Crautreic          II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Cait                II.B.1. ColMS, son of Cruithne, eponym of
                    Cathness
 Got                II.B.1. IrHB, son of Cruithne, eponym of
                    Cathness
Ce                  II.B.1. ColMS & IrHB, son of Cruithne
Cennaleph           II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, byname, historic kings
Cimoith/Ciniath     The variants for these names overlap enough
                    that it is difficult to tell if there are two
                    names or only one, badly mangled. If two,
                    then "Cinioiod" is likely to be an error for
                    "Cimoiod", and "Cinioch/Ciniath" is likely to
                    be a separate name. See also "Cinid/Cint" for
                    a possibly related name.
 Cemoyd             II.C. HB 8th c. Pictish king
 Cemoyth            II.C. HB 9th c. Pictish king
 Cimoiod            II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Cinioiod           II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
 Cinioch            II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Ciniath            II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
Cinge               II.B.1. ColMS & IrHB, father of Cruidne
Cinid/Cint          These probably represent two (if not three)
                    different names, but are similar enough to be
                    worth considering together. See also
                    "Cimoith/Ciniath" for possibly related names.
 Cinid              II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list
 Cind               II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urcnid            II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Cinid"
  Urcind            II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Cind"
 Ciniod             II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, historic kings
 Cint               II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urcint            II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Cint"
Circin(n)           II.B.1. ColMS, son of Cruithne, eponym of
                    Mearns (by a circuitous route)
 Cirigh             II.B.1. IrHB, son of Cruithne
*Constantine        This is obviously a borrowing of the saint's
                    name, although "Castantin", at least, shows
                    evidence of having been adopted into the
                    language long enough to undergo some phonetic
                    changes.
 Castantin          II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Constantin         II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings; also patronym,
                    historic kings
 Constantini        II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings,
                    Latin genitive
Cornavii            II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, Celtic
Creones             II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Cum                 II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, despite how it is
                    presented in the transcription, this is
                    almost certainly simply Latin "with", not a
                    name.
Decantae            II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, Celtic
Denbecan            The Irish versions are almost certainly
                    derived from a scribal misreading. "a" for
                    "d" is easily understandable in some hands,
                    and "Aen-" to "On-" is unremarkable in Irish
                    of the period.
 Denbecan           II.B.1. ColMS, pre-Brude king
 Aenbecan           II.B.1. IrHB, pre-Brude king, IrHB also has
                    "Onbecan", almost certainly a scribal error
                    for "Denbecan"
*Deo-               Enough names begin with the element "Deo-" or
                    some variant of it that it is quite probable
                    that this is either a word or name element in
                    Pictish. Skene lists one name as "Deo
                    ardivois", but this may be a
                    misinterpretation of a line break as a word
                    break. This element may be related to "Diu",
                    q.v..
Deo ardivois        II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Deordiuois         II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Diuberr             II.B.3. ColMS, byname, post-Brude list, one
                    manuscript translates it as "rich"
 Diuperr            II.B.3. IrHB, byname, post-Brude list
Deocilunon          II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Deocillimon        II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Deoord              II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Deort              II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Dectotr'ic          II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list, in this case,
                    I would be more inclined to trust the Irish
                    form that follows
 Deototreic         II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Derelei             II.B.4. ColMS (twice) & IrHB, patronym,
                    historic kings
 Derilei            II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Deva                II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Devana              II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Diu                 II.B.3. ColMS, "fratronym", post-Brude list
 Tui                II.B.3. IrHB, "fratronym", post-Brude list,
                    "Tui" may be Gaelicized genitive
Domnall             At least one later source substitutes
                    "Donald" for "Domelch", whether rightly or
                    wrongly. The "Donnel/Donuel" pair is a little
                    more believable as variants.
 Domelch            II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Domech             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Donnel             II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Donuel             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Drust/an            Drust is one of the top 10 most popular names
                    in the lists. Jackson interprets the name as
                    of Celtic origin, in which case it makes
                    sense to give the diminutive in its Celtic
                    form, "Drustan", in the heading, although
                    this spelling is not found in the Pictish
                    records.
 Drest              II.B.4. ColMS (8 examples), IrHB (8
                    examples), historic kings
 Drust              II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, post-Brude list;
                    II.B.4. IrHB historic kings
 Drosten            II.D. Roman-letter inscription (8-9th c.)
 Druisten           II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Dumna               II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic,
                    modern Isle of Lewis
Emcat               II.E. Possible Pict mentioned by Adamnan (7th
                    c.), cognate with Gaulish "Ambicatos", Ir.
                    "Imchath"
 Emchat             ibid
Eanfrith            This is an Anglo-Saxon name.
 Enfret             II.B.4. ColMS, IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Enfreth            II.B.4. ColMS, IrHB (twice), patronym,
                    historic kings
Entifidich          II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Enfidaig           II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings,
                    "Amfedech" also appears in Irish sources, but
                    this would derive from "Enfidaig"
Epidii              II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably Celtic
 Epinii             II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably
                    Celtic, this variant appears on one Latin
                    version, but seems to be an error, based on
                    the following
 Epidium Prom.      II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Erilich             II.B.4. ColMS byname, historic kings
 Arilith            II.B.4. IrHB byname, historic kings
Erp                 II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, patronym, post-Brude
                    list
 Erop               II.B.3. ColMS, patronym, post-Brude list
 Erip               II.B.3. IrHB, patronym, post-Brude list
 Wirp               II.B.3. ColMS, patronym, post-Brude list,
                    found in Latinized version of name
*Etharnan           This is one of the few names appearing in
                    several sources that does not appear in the
                    king-lists. Depending on how many people the
                    various examples refer to, it may fall in the
                    top 10 most popular names of the medieval
                    period. It appears to be non-Celtic in
                    origin.
 Eddarrnonn         II.D. Ogham inscription
 Ethernan           II.D. First bishop of Rathin (source
                    unspecified)
 Idarnoin           II.D. Roman-letter inscription
 Itharnan           II.D. Pict appearing in the Ulster Annals
                    (669)
 Ithernan           II.D. First bishop of Rathin (source
                    unspecified)
Fecir               II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list
 Feth               II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urfecir           II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Fecir"
  Urfeichir         II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Fecir"
Fet                 II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list
 Feth               II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urfet             II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Fet"
  Urfeth            II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Fet"
Fidaich             II.B.1. ColMS & IrHB, son of Cruithne, this
                    is rather clearly a Gaelic form, no
                    corresponding P-Celtic form is found
 Fidaich            II.B.1. IrHB, son of Cruithne
Fodla               II.B.1. IrHB, son of Cruithne, eponym of
                    Athol
 Floclaid           II.B.1. ColMS, son of Cruithne
Fortrenn            II.B.1. ColMS, son of Cruithne, eponym of a
                    part of Perth
 Fortrend           II.B.1. IrHB, son of Cruithne
Gaed brechach       II.B.1. ColMS, byname of pre-Brude king
 Gadbre             II.B.1. IrHB, byname of pre-Brude king,
                    probably corruption of the preceding
Galam               II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, historic kings
Galanan             II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Galan              II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
Gant                II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list
 Urgant             II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Gant"
Gart                II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list, see
                    also "Gartnait" which may be derived from
                    this
 Urgart             II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Gart"
Gartnait            This is another of the top 10 most popular
                    names in the historic period. The forms with
                    "-ch" are almost certainly misreadings of
                    spellings in "-th", in at least one case, the
                    error seems to have been Skene's rather than
                    some medieval scribes. The "-th" ending may
                    be a Gaelicized form, or it may simply be a
                    parallel development in Pictish
                    pronunciation.
 Garnard            II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Garthnach          II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Gartnaich          II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 
 Gartnait           II.B.3. IrHB (2 examples), post-Brude list;
                    ColMS (1 example) and IrHB (5 examples),
                    historic kings
 Gartnaith          II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Gartnart           II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
Gede                II.B.1. ColMS pre-Brude king
Gest                II.B.1. ColMS & IrHB, pre-Brude king, this is
                    probably identical with the second element in
                    "Urgust", q.v.
Gilgidi             II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, post-Brude list
Girom               "Girom" appears most likely to be the the
                    original form
 Girom              II.B.4. ColMS(2 examples) & IrHB, patronym,
                    historic kings
 Giron              II.B.4. IrHB (3 examples), patronym, historic
                    kings
 Gyrom              II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
Gnith               II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list
 Urgnith            II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Gnith"
Grid                II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list
 Grith              II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urgrid            II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Grid"
  Urgrith           II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Grid"
*Han?
 Maphan             II.E. Byname of Pict mentioned in the Ulster
                    Annals (8th c.), this might possibly be "map"
                    (son of) plus some unknown given name, but it
                    has likely been corrupted
Ila                 II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Ini                 II.B.3. IrHB, possible byname, post-Brude
                    list, may be scribal artifact
Itis                II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Lemannonius         II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Leo                 II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list, see
                    also "Morleo", which may contain this
 Uleo               II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Leo" (i.e., ur+leo)
Loc                 II.B.3. ColMS, possible byname, post-Brude
                    list
 Bolc               II.B.3. IrHB, possible byname, post-Brude
                    list
Longus              II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Lossio              II.A.2. Caledonian personal name in 3rd c.
                    inscription, may be from same root as "Loxa"
Loxa                II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic, may
                    mean "crooked"
Lugi                II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, Celtic
Lutrin              II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, patronym, historic
                    kings
Mailcon             II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings, this
                    is Modern Welsh "Maelgwn"
 Melcon             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Malaius             II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic,
                    modern Isle of Mull
Morbet              II.B.3. ColMS, byname, post-Brude list, in
                    another citation of the same person it is
                    Latinized as "Magnus" (great)
 Morbrec            II.B.3. IrHB, byname, post-Brude list
Morleo              II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, post-Brude list, see
                    also "Leo"
Muir-?              Almost certainly an Irish name in corrupted
                    form
 Muircholaich       II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Murtholoic         II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Munait              II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings,
                    origin unknown but compare with other names
                    ending in "-nait" (i.e., Gartnait), possibly
                    "Mund+nait"?
 Munaith            II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Mund                II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list
 Muin               II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urmund            II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Mund"
  Urmuin            II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Mund"
Nabarus             II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Namet               It may be impossible to sort out the scribal
                    errors in the following elements, see "Vipoig
                    namet" for the full forms
 Ignaviet           II.B.3. possible byname
 Namet              II.B.3. possible byname
Nectan              Another of the top 10 most popular names;
                    this is found in a large variety of sources.
                    It is cognate with Old Welsh "Neithon" and
                    Irish "Nechtan". Some of the variation in
                    spelling may be due to shifts in
                    pronunciation. Jackson proposes the
                    chronology: Nechton > Nehton > *Neiton
                    (Naiton in Bede).
 Naiton             II.E. Pict mentioned in the Ulster Annals
                    (?8th c.)
 Nechtan            II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Nectan             II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list; IrHB, historic
                    kings
 Necthon            II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Necton             II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Nectonius          II.B.3. Latinized form found in ColMS in the
                    post-Brude list
 Nectu              II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings, probably a
                    scribal error for "Necta[n]"
 Nehhton            II.D. Ogham inscription
 
Olfinecta           II.B.1. ColMS pre-Brude king, final element
                    possibly related to "Nectan"?
 Finechta           II.B.1. IrHB, pre-Brude king
Olgudach            II.B.1. ColMS byname, pre-Brude king
Orcades             II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic,
                    modern Orkneys
Orrea               II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Pant                II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list
 Pont               II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list
  Urpant            II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Pant"
  Urpont            II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Pant"
Peanfahel           II.E. Pictish place-name for "Kinneil"
                    mentioned in Bede (8th c.), has Celtic roots
Picti               I.A. tribal name, first mentioned in 3rd c.
                    Latin poem
*Pritani            Jackson gives *Pritani or *Priteni as the
                    tribal name at the root of these forms
 Cruidne            II.B.1. ColMS, eponymous founder of Picts,
                    almost certainly apocryphal
 Cruithne           II.B.1. IrHB, eponymous founder of Picts
 Pretanic           II.A.2. place name applied to British Isles
                    in 1st c. BC, this is an Anglicized form
                    found in modern sources, Latin would probably
                    have been "Pretanicus"
Ru                  This is one of the few names from the Brude-
                    list also found elsewhere.
 Ru                 II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list;
                    II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, post-Brude list
  Eru               II.B.2. ColMS, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Ru"
  Ero               II.B.2. IrHB, king in Brude-list, probably
                    ghost of "Ru"
Scetis              II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic,
                    modern Isle of Skye
Smertae             II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, Celtic
Taezali             II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably
                    Celtic, Latin version
 Taixali            II.A.1. Greek version of above
 Taezalorum Prom.   II.A.1. Pt, place name
Talorc/an           One of the top 10 most popular names of the
                    historic period ("Talorc" and "Talorcan"
                    would each make the list separately; together
                    they are beaten only by "Drust/an".) Jackson
                    suggests a Celtic origin. The regular
                    appearance of "Talore" in the Pictish
                    Chronicle is puzzling. It could be explained
                    by a scribal mis-reading, but given the long
                    popularity of the name, the error must have
                    been made very late in the history of the
                    text (or by a singularly unobservant scribe).
 Talorc             II.B.3. IrHB (2 examples), post-Brude list;
                    II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings; also II.B.4.
                    IrHB, historic kings, corresponding to a
                    "Talorgen" in ColMS
 Talore             II.B.3. ColMS (2 examples), post-Brude list;
                    II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Talorg             II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, historic kings
 
 Talargan           II.C. HB 8th c. Pictish king
 Tallorcen          II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Talorcan           II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Talorcen           II.B.4. IrHB (3 examples), historic kings
 Talorgen           II.B.4. ColMS (3 examples), historic kings
 Tolarggan          II.E. Pict mentioned in the Ulster Annals
                    (8th c.)
Tamia               II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Taran               II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, historic kings
 Tharain            II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Tarain             II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list, may be Gaelic
                    genitive of "Taran"
Tarl'a              II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Tang               II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Tarvedum            II.A.1. Pt, place name, probably Celtic
Tavae               II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Tina                II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Tuesis              II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
*Udrost?            The forms suggest a "standard" Pictish
                    spelling along these lines.
 Wdrost             II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Budros             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
Uen                 This "standard" form is found in one of the
                    manuscripts that I did not use as my primary
                    source. "*Uuen" might be more accurate. The
                    name is also found as "Eoganan" in one Irish
                    version, although that would appear to be a
                    diminutive of the root name. There is an Old
                    Welsh cognate "Eugein", Modern Welsh "Owain".
                    This is one of the top 10 most popular names
                    in the historic records.
 Iogenan            II.E. Pict living in Ireland mentioned by
                    Adamnan (7th c.), elsewhere used to Gaelicize
                    "Uuen"
 Ougen              II.C. HB 8th c. Pictish king
 Unen               II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings, almost
                    certainly a scribal error for "Uuen"
 Uven               II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
Uerb                Possibly the same name as "Erp", q.v.
 Uerb               II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Uerd               II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
Uecla               II.B.3. ColMS, byname, post-Brude list, one
                    of these is a scribal error, ColMS has
                    several c-for-t substitutions, so "Uetla"
                    may, be more accurate
 Uetla              II.B.3. IrHB, byname, post-Brude list
*Uidid              I have reconstructed a "standard" Pictish
                    form in parallel with similar names.
                    Interestingly, the Irish source preserves a
                    P-Celtic form while the Scottish source has
                    "translated" it to a Q-Celtic form
 Fuidid             II.B.1. ColMS pre-Brude king
 Guidid             II.B.1. IrHB pre-Brude king
Uip                 In addition to the names in the Brude-list,
                    this may be the Pictish form of Gaelicized
                    "Fib", and may be the first element of
                    "Vepogenus" and "Vipoig-namet". Jackson
                    considers it possible that the latter two are
                    the same name.
 Fib                II.B.1. son of Cruithne, eponym of Fife,
                    Gaelicized (cf. Uip-, Uepo-)
 Uip                II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list
 Uruip              II.B.2. ColMS & IrHB, king in Brude-list,
                    probably ghost of "Uip"
 Uipo               see "Uipo ignaviet"
 Uipo ignaviet      II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list, possibly given
                    name + byname, cf. "Vipoig namet"
 Vepogenus          II.A.2. Caledonian personal name in 3rd c.
                    inscription
 Vipoig             see "Vipoig namet"
 Vipoig namet       II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list, possibly
                    given name + byname, cf. "Uipo ignaviet"
Uirolec             II.E. Possible Pict mentioned by Adamnan (7th
                    c.)
*Ungust             This is cognate with Irish "Oengus", the
                    second element may be the same as "Gest".
                    This is among the top 10 most popular names
                    in the historic period.
 Oinuist            II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Onnist             II.B.4. ColMS, once as given name, once as
                    patronym, historic kings
 Onuis              II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Uidnuist           II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Unuist             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings;
                    II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
 Vnuist             II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
Uuid                I have taken the "standard" form from the
                    Irish source, which seems less corrupt, also
                    appears in some Irish sources as "Foith"
 Uuid               II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Wid                II.B.4. ColMS (2 examples), patronym,
                    historic kings
Uurad               This is cognate with Old Breton "Uuoret", it
                    appears as "Ferat" in one of the other Irish
                    sources
 Uoret              II.D. Roman-letter inscription (8-9th c.?)
 Uurad              II.B.4. IrHB, historic kings
 Wrad               II.B.4. ColMS, historic kings
*Uuradec            I have based my "standard" form on the one
                    most likely to produce both "Uuradech" and
                    "Uuredeg" as variants. The first element may
                    well be identidal to "Uurad".
 Wradech            II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Uuradech           II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
 Wredech            II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Uuredeg            II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
*Uurcich?           My "standard" form is highly questionable in
                    this case.
 Gurcich            II.B.1. ColMS, byname of pre-Brude king
 Gurid              II.B.1. IrHB, byname of pre-Brude king
*Uurgust            This is the one case I have noticed where one
                    of the "Ur-X" ghosts from the Brude-list is
                    actually found elsewhere in the records. The
                    name is cognate with Irish "Fergus" and Welsh
                    "Gwrgwst". This is one of the top 10 most
                    popular names in the historic period.
 Forcus             II.D. Roman-letter inscription, Gaelicized
                    form
 Urges              II.B.1. IrHB pre-Brude king, probably ghost
                    of "Gest"
 Urguist            II.B.4. ColMS & IrHB, patronym, historic
                    kings
 Uurguist           II.B.4. IrHB (2 examples), patronym, historic
                    kings
 Uurgut             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Wirguist           II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
 Wrguist            II.B.4. ColMS (2 examples), patronym,
                    historic kings
 Wurgest            II.B.1. ColMS pre-Brude king, probably ghost
                    of "Gest"
*Uroican            Jackson suggests this as a "standard" form
                    for the name.
 Broichan           II.E. Pict mentioned by Adamnan (7th c.)
Uuroid              II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings,
                    "Ferat" in some Irish versions, possibly a
                    Gaelicized genitive of "Uurad" q.v.
 Wroid              II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
*Uurthinmoc?        This is only an approximation at a standard
                    form. Either "-ch" or "-th" is an error for
                    the other.
 Gurthinmoch        II.B.4. ColMS, byname, historic kings
 Gurthimoth         II.B.4. IrHB, byname, historic kings
Usconbuts           II.B.3. ColMS & IrHB, post-Brude list
*Uust               This is probably the same element found in
                    "Uurgust".
 Vist               II.B.3. ColMS, post-Brude list
 Uist               II.B.3. IrHB, post-Brude list
Uuthoil             II.B.4. IrHB, patronym, historic kings
 Wthoil             II.B.4. ColMS, patronym, historic kings
Vacomagi            II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably Celtic
Varar               II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Veda                II.A.2. Caledonian byname in 3rd c.
                    inscription
Venicones           II.A.1. Pt, tribal name, not proveably Celtic
Verturiones         I.B. tribal name, division of Picts mentioned
                    by 4th c. Ammianus Marcellinus
Verubium            II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Virvedrum           II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic
Volas               II.A.1. Pt, place name, not proveably Celtic


Introduction
The Material
Analyzing and Using the Data
Bibliography
Index of Name Elements


Layout, editting, and publishing by Arval Benicoeur.